Controversies in Military Ethics & Security Policy
Women, Peace & Security: A Short Overview of the Agenda
1979 Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women
Most important international agreement for the protection of women and girls
Prohibits discrimination at all levels and commits to equality
Signatory states must report every four years
1995 Beijing Conference and the Final Declaration (so-called Beijing Platform)
189 UN countries adopt the most comprehensive approach to promoting gender equality and supporting women and girls
Establishment of gender mainstreaming (taking into account different impacts of policy decisions on men and women)
2000 Windhoek Declaration
Key outcome of the Beijing Conference calling for stronger links between security and peace and gender justice
Gender mainstreaming at all levels of peace missions and the perception of women beyond the victim status come into focus
2000 Security Council Resolution 1325
The first resolution of the agenda focuses on expanding the protection of women in conflict regions and calling for greater participation of women in peace and reconstruction processes.
2008 Security Council Resolution 1820
According to the UN Security Council, acts of sexual violence can be considered war crimes, crimes against humanity or genocide. In addition, member states are urged to prosecute sexual violence in wars and not to grant amnesty to perpetrators.
2009 Security Council Resolution 1888
This resolution emphasizes the special protected status of women and children and calls for an immediate end to sexual violence by parties to conflicts in crisis regions as well as stronger and more consistent persecution of such acts. Establishes the Office of the Special Representative of the Secretary-General on Sexual Violence in Conflict. The fight against sexual violence is considered to be of great importance for the goal of world peace.
2009 Security Council Resolution 1889
The text repeats the underrepresentation of women in peace processes and explicitly emphasizes the promotion of women in decision-making and mediating positions. They play a decisive role in conflict prevention, which is why obstacles of all kinds in the regions and states concerned must be further dismantled. In addition to more protection, member states are requested to do more to empower women.
2010 Security Council Resolution 1960
The resolution calls for the development of data collection and analysis mechanisms on conflict-related sexual violence, establishes Women Protection Advisors for UN missions, and notes the link between women in peacekeeping missions and local women’s willingness to report acts of sexual violence. It also urges member states to deploy more female uniformed personnel in the military and police to provide a broader training base on sexual violence.
2013 Security Council Resolution 2106
This resolution addresses the persistent problem of impunity in cases of conflict-related sexual violence.
2013 Security Council Resolution 2122
The Security Council identifies more effective measures for the inclusion of women in peace processes and tasks the Secretary-General with a report on implementation.
2015 Security Council Resolution 2242
The resolution links Women, Peace and Security with the prevention of extremism and terrorism. It calls for the establishment of an Informal Expert Group as an advisory and information body, for example on the situation in individual countries, which starts working in 2016.
2019 Security Council Resolution 2467
The resolution submitted by Germany highlights the importance of civil society and creates a link between a society's unwillingness to prosecute violence against women and its propensity for conflict. It also calls for a “survivor-centered approach” that sees women less as victims and more as shaping actors. Men and boys are mentioned as previously neglected groups affected by sexualized violence.
2019 Security Council Resolution 2493
The last WPS resolution so far urges member states to fully implement the agenda.