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Women, Peace & Security: A Short Overview of the Agenda

1979   Convention on the ­Elimination of All Forms of ­Discrimination Against ­Women

  • Most important international agreement for the protection of women and girls
  • Prohibits discrimination at all levels and commits to equality
  • Signatory states must report every four years

1995   Beijing Conference and the Final Declaration (so-called Beijing Platform)

  • 189 UN countries adopt the most comprehensive approach to promoting gender equality and supporting women and girls
  • Establishment of gender mainstreaming (taking into account different impacts of policy decisions on men and women)

2000   Windhoek Declaration

  • Key outcome of the Beijing Conference calling for stronger links between security and peace and gender justice
  • Gender mainstreaming at all levels of peace missions and the perception of women beyond the victim status come into focus

2000   Security Council Resolution 1325

The first resolution of the agenda focuses on expanding the protection of women in conflict regions and calling for greater participation of women in peace and reconstruction processes.

2008   Security Council Resolution 1820

According to the UN Security Council, acts of sexual violence can be considered war crimes, crimes against humanity or genocide. In addition, member states are urged to prosecute sexual violence in wars and not to grant amnesty to perpetrators. 

2009   Security Council Resolution 1888

This resolution emphasizes the special protected status of women and children and calls for an immediate end to sexual violence by parties to conflicts in crisis regions as well as stronger and more consistent persecution of such acts. Establishes the Office of the Special Representative of the Secretary-General on Sexual Violence in Conflict. The fight against sexual violence is considered to be of great importance for the goal of world peace. 

2009   Security Council Resolution 1889

The text repeats the underrepresentation of women in peace processes and explicitly em­phasizes the promotion of women in decision-making and mediating positions. They play a decisive role in conflict prevention, which is why obstacles of all kinds in the regions and states concerned must be further dismantled. In addition to more protection, member states are requested to do more to empower women.

2010   Security Council Resolution 1960

The resolution calls for the development of data collection and analysis mechanisms on conflict-related sexual violence, establishes Women Protection Advisors for UN missions, and notes the link between women in peacekeeping missions and local women’s willingness to report acts of sexual violence. It also urges member states to deploy more female uniformed personnel in the military and police to provide a broader training base on sexual violence.

2013   Security Council Resolution 2106

This resolution addresses the persistent problem of impunity in cases of conflict-related sexual violence.

2013   Security Council Resolution 2122

The Security Council identifies more effective measures for the inclusion of women in peace processes and tasks the Secretary-General with a report on implementation.

2015   Security Council Resolution 2242

The resolution links Women, Peace and Security with the prevention of extremism and terrorism. It calls for the establishment of an Informal Expert Group as an advisory and information body, for example on the situation in individual countries, which starts working in 2016.

2019   Security Council Resolution 2467

The resolution submitted by Germany highlights the importance of civil society and creates a link between a society's unwillingness to prosecute violence against women and its propensity for conflict. It also calls for a “survivor-centered approach” that sees women less as victims and more as shaping actors. Men and boys are mentioned as previously neglected groups affected by sexualized violence.

2019   Security Council Resolution 2493

The last WPS resolution so far urges member states to fully implement the agenda.


Sources (Resolutionen und Beschlüsse des Sicherheitsrats)

Bundeszentrale für politische Bildung (BpB) (Hg.) (2009): Welttag zur Beseitigung sexueller Gewalt in Konflikten. In: (accessed 18.5.2022).

Oestreich, Heide (2002): Die Weltsicherheit wird quotiert. In:!1088583/ (accessed 18.5.2022).

Shepherd, Laura J. (2019): WPS and adopted Security Council resolutions. In: Davies, Sara E.and True, Jacqui (eds.): The Oxford Handbook on Women, Peace and Security. Oxford.