Paris, Brussels, Istanbul, Nice, Berlin, Barcelona, London – the web of terror attacks across Europe is growing ever denser: “The fragments of images dissolve into each other, merging in the media perception into a gigantic phantasm – the phantasm of omnipresent violence.” Nearly two decades after the twin attacks on the World Trade Center, the terrorists’ psychological strategy seems to work: “The fear of attacks lives in people’s minds, crawls through their imagination, and controls their expectations.”
Innere Führung commits German soldiers for respect to human rights, to fairness, tolerance and loyalty to democratic decisions. But given current conflicts and security-policy challenges, is Innere Führung still in step with the times, and can it realistically be put into practice ? Who does the Bundeswehr really need – citizens in uniform or would global warriors be preferable ? In the light of international deployments, the issue is becoming increasingly contentious. What does this mean for armed forces all around the world?
Inciting insurgency, cyber attacks, exerting influence through propaganda, deliberately spreading confusion – all of these can be part of a hybrid war. Covert and overt operations go hand in hand. Everything is possible, every possibility is used. This presents major challenges for security policy, such as the worldwide situation of refugees, and raises many ethical questions. It is therefore all the more important to respond to the complexity of hybrid warfare in a measured and strategic way.