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With the transformation of the Bundeswehr into an operational army, a debate has begun about the concept of Innere Führung (leadership development and civic education), the attitude and role models of soldiers. Do they see themselves as “German Warriors”, defining themselves above all through military professionalism and corresponding role models? To what extent does Innere Führung meet the reality of military operations? An examination of the concept and its ethical foundations, but also of military virtues in general and their significance in the past and present.

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Photo: Janine Schmitz/

Climate Change as a Threat Multiplier

Issue 2021/1


Global climate change poses an existential danger to humanity, but has faded into the background somewhat during the coronavirus pandemic. Now the issue is back with force. In the United States, President Biden formally rejoined the Paris climate agreement on the day of his inauguration, and has since announced very ambitious climate targets. In Germany, climate protection has remained a focal point of political debate even during the pandemic, and is one of the key issues in the upcoming parliamentary elections. The UN Climate Change Conference (COP26) promises to be an interesting event. It was postponed because of the pandemic and will now take place in Glasgow in November 2021. Will the international community agree on further improvements to limit global warming to well below two degrees Celsius?

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Photo: picture alliance / NurPhoto | Carlos Costa


UN Secretary-General António Guterres has called the corona pandemic the greatest crisis of our age. It is the biggest challenge the world has faced since the United Nations was established 75 years ago. This is not only about containing the virus, but also a matter of basic human solidarity, of helping people to cope with the economic consequences. Guterres speaks of a choice: When the crisis is eventually over, we can either go back to how things were before, or we can resolutely set about changing the things that make the world vulnerable to pandemics.

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Photo: picture alliance/dpa/Jonas Güttler